New technologies have emerged throughout history that have mocked our closely held intuitions about the world. Telescopes for example taught us that the universe doesn't revolve around the earth. In a hundred years, as new technologies unfold that we can't yet imagine, will we look back in amazement at how we misunderstood the human brain in this era?
It is worth considering that some of these misunderstandings may be the cause of much everyday misery in the workplace.
I recently visited a large technology firm and was proudly shown some new workstations being put in place across their business. The main new feature was a significantly lower cubicle line, allowing you to see just about anyone else on your floor while sitting down.
Someone had noticed that people were not collaborating much, and thought the problem was that people couldn't see each other.
The trouble is, collaboration may have less to do with being able to see other people and more to do with how people feel at work. We tend to reduce collaboration when we feel threatened or stressed, and increase it when we feel safe.
How people feel about each other tends to be based on less physically-obvious factors, like people's sense of being treated fairly, or of how much uncertainty they are having to deal with, and how much autonomy they are given to follow their hunches. In fact, making it easier to see people may have exactly the opposite of the intended effect.
Unfortunately, organizations often find it easier to invest in physical, tangible changes over less certain human changes. In this way investments in software and technology massively outstrip investments in training and development, even though the research generally shows that companies get a better return on investment the other way around.
In a recent discussion with neuroscientist Lisa Feldman Barrett about organizations and the trouble with working in large teams, she said: âNothing jangles a primate like crowding'.
Her explanation, if you take any type of primate and put them with many others, it is almost guaranteed to raise everyone's cortisol levels, a marker of stress. Yet this is exactly what this technology firm was doing - make people acutely aware of how many others they were surrounded by.
A media company I met with last year was already experiencing the effects of this problem. Someone had decided that a massively open-plan layout would be good for creating 'buzz' and therefore innovation at the office. They had worked and invested hard to make the space âfun' and âcreative' with many fabulous pieces of art, unexpected architecture and great use of technology.
Walking into the foyer was an inspiring and exhilarating experience but people couldn't focus. âI just can't get any real work done here' was a frequently heard comment. It was all too distracting. To make matters worse, they had reduced the number of quiet spaces, so people now couldn't easily get time to do the deeper thinking work.
The brain is very easily distracted - even tiny distractions like a quiet beeping can stop an important train of thoughts in its tracks.
Not understanding how distracted we can be, as well as how crowding makes us anxious, has see many companies spend millions of dollars going in exactly the wrong direction, giving the brain the opposite of what it needs.
If more innovation is required, studies are showing that it is not just feeling happy that helps, it's also important to lower the overall noise in the brain. Insights and breakthroughs come from a quiet mind, not a hyper-stimulated one. If you want to increase innovation, increase people's capacity to do really quiet work.
A large healthcare firm recently surveyed their employees, receiving over 6,000 respondents. The questions were designed to tease out how efficient people thought they were. There were a few surprises.
Firstly, most people did their best thinking in the morning. That was no big surprise. Though if this is the case, meetings should not be scheduled in the morning, unless it's a creative meeting to invent something together. Mornings are needed for deep thinking. Despite this, most people's mornings are filled with activities that would be better after lunch, when your brain craves interaction to stay awake.
âWhere do you do your best thinking' received most surprising answer. Only around 10% of people responded âat work'. Consider this: people are paid to think, and are required to spend a lot of time at work, yet work is not the place they think well.
There is a sweet-spot for organizing people's time and space at work. It involves not scheduling meetings in the mornings. Give people the option of a quiet, totally undisturbed working space to work in the mornings. Small distractions appear to cost a lot metabolically. Provide an option of a space to work around other people for the lower energy afternoons. Allow people to work from home as much as possible.
This would have many benefits, including reducing pollution, energy use, increasing work life balance, as well as productivity. My hunch is that working at home should probably average about 50% across an organization.
What will it take to create the ideal work environment? For a start, organizations need to do more careful research around designing workflows, research that takes into account how the brain actually works. A lot of our intuitive hunches about the brain are wrong, and many workspaces work against creating high functioning teams.
Misunderstanding the brain is bad for business.
David Rock spoke about the neuroscience of innovation and creativity at the inaugural Creative Innovations 2010 conference in Melbourne in September.
He is the Founder and CEO of Results Coaching Systems (RCS), which has operations in 15 countries. RCS helps Fortune 500 clients embed internal coaching capacity to develop leaders, retain talent and improve performance. As well as running RCS, in 2007 David coined the term âNeuroLeadershipâ and co-founded the NeuroLeadership Institute, a global initiative bringing neuroscientists and leadership experts together to build a new science for leadership development. David is the author of 'Personal Best', (Simon & Schuster, 2001), 'Quiet Leadership'(Harper Collins, 2006) and 'Coaching with the Brain in Mind' (Wiley & Sons, 2009), and 'Your Brain at Work', released in October 2009. He is currently completing a doctorate in the Neuroscience of Leadership, and lives between Sydney and New York City.